This duality in Article V is the result of compromises made at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 between two groups, one of which asserted that the national legislature should not play a role in the constitutional amendment process, and another asserted that proposals to amend the Constitution should originate in the national legislature and that their ratification should be decided by state legislators or the conventions of the States. To have to.  With respect to the consensual amendment process developed during the Convention, James Madison (in The Federalist No. 43) stated: Article V sets out the procedures for amending the Constitution, but does not explicitly state whether these procedures apply to Article V itself. According to law professor George Mader, there have been many proposals to change the procedures for amending the Constitution, and “it is generally accepted that constitutional amendment provisions can be used to change themselves.” Nevertheless, Article V has never been amended.   Congress has the power to collect and collect income taxes, regardless of source, without division between states and independently of any census or enumeration. Section 5. Congress shall have the power to apply the provisions of this Article by appropriate legislation. Knowing that the country would change over time, the authors wanted the constitution to change with the times and the needs of the country. To make these changes possible, they have enshrined an amendment process in the constitution. This amendment process is described in article 5 of the Constitution. Photo of the original Constitution showing Article 5. No title of nobility may be conferred by the United States: And no person holding any office of gain or trust between them may accept gifts, pardons, offices, or titles of any kind from any king, prince, or foreign state without the consent of Congress.
Article V also contains two declarations protecting the subject matter of certain constitutional clauses against modification. The first of the two is obsolete due to an attached sunset provision. Absolutely not modifiable until 1808: Article I, Section 9, clause 1, which prevented Congress from passing a law that would restrict the importation of slaves before 1808, and Article I, Section 9, clause 4, a declaration that direct taxes must be distributed among the population of the state, as described in Article I, Section 2, clause 3. The second ban has not been given an expiry date and remains in effect. It expressly provides that no amendment may deprive a State without the consent of that State of the same right to vote (representation) in the Senate as described in Article I, Section 3, Clause 1.  Designed to seal two compromises reached between the delegates of the Constitutional Convention after controversial debates, these are the only explicitly enshrined provisions of the Constitution.    No state may impose duties or duties on imports or exports without the consent of Congress, except to the extent strictly necessary for the enforcement of its inspection laws: and the net production of all duties and charges levied by a state on imports or exports is for the use of the United States Treasury; and all such laws are subject to scrutiny and scrutiny by Congress. An amendment becomes an operational element of the Constitution when it is ratified by the required number of states, and not at a later stage when its ratification is confirmed.  No further action by Congress or anyone else is required. On three occasions, after being informed that an amendment had reached the threshold for ratification, Congress adopted a resolution declaring the process successfully completed.
[d]  Such measures, while perhaps important for political reasons, are constitutionally unnecessary. Three times during the 20th century, concerted efforts were made by proponents of certain amendments to obtain the number of requests needed to entrust a Convention under Article V. These included conventions to consider amendments to (1) provide for the U.S. popular vote. senators; (2) Allow States to include factors other than equality of population in determining state legislative boundaries; and (3) propose an amendment that requires the U.S. budget to be balanced in most circumstances. The campaign for a people-elected Senate is often credited with “pushing” the Senate to join the House of Representatives to propose the Seventeenth Amendment to the states in 1912, while the last two campaigns in the 1960s and 1980s were very close to the two-thirds threshold.   The second method is for one or more states to convene a constitutional convention. Both chambers must approve this proposal by Congress.
Section 1. The eighteenth article of the amendment to the United States Constitution is repealed. Section 1. The term of office of the President and the Vice-President shall end on 20 January at noon and that of Senators and Deputies at noon on 3 January of the years in which such terms would have ended had this Article not been ratified; then the mandates of their successors begin. According to constitutional theorist and scholar Lawrence G. Sager, some commentators have seriously questioned whether Article V is the exclusive means of amending the Constitution or whether there are ways to change it, including some ways in which the Constitution might be changed unconsciously or unconsciously at a time of sustained political activity by a mobilized national electorate.  For example, Akhil Amar rejects the idea that Article V excludes other forms of constitutional amendment, arguing instead that the Article V procedure is simply the exclusive method that the government can use to amend the Constitution. He asserts that article V nowhere prevents the people themselves, acting outside the ordinary government, from exercising their legal right to change or abolish the government through appropriate legal procedures.  Once passed by Congress, the joint resolution proposing a constitutional amendment does not require presidential approval before being submitted to the states. While Article I, Section 7, provides that all federal laws before they become law must be submitted to the President for signature or veto, Article V does not provide such a requirement for constitutional amendments approved by Congress or by a federal convention.